Certificate may refer to: read more at WikiPedia

  • How many times have you seen an alert similar to one of the below while trying to connect to the café or airport WiFi to check email or login to a secure website?


  • Beyond Corp project scrap the notion of a corporate network and move to a zero-trust model....

    Google sees little distinction between boardrooms and bars, cubicles and coffee shops; all are untrusted under its perimeter-less security model detailed in a paper published this week. The "BeyondCorp model" under development for more than five years is a zero-trust network model where the user is king and log in location means little. Staff devices including laptops and phones are logged into a device inventory service which contains trust information and snapshots of the devices at a given time. Employees are awarded varying levels of trust provided they meet minimum criteria which authors Barclay Osborn, Justin McWilliams, Betsy Beyer, and Max Saltonst all say reduces maintenance cost and improves device usability (PDF)

    White Paper 


  • Create a new RSA key

    # openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 1024
    Give a very lengthy key, and save it somewhere in a PGP file or TrueCrypt volume

    Create a non encrypted version for Apache

    # openssl rsa -in server.key -out server.key.unsecure

    Prepare the mark inquiry

    # openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr
    Attention enter the host from where the certificate will be use, since browser are matching content of certificate with host url.

    Sign the certificate

    # openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt

    Add the SSL certificate to Apache

    path to server.key and server.crt may differ!

    (SuSE 9.3 keys store at /etc/apache2/ssl.key/)
    # cp server.key.unsecure /etc/httpd/ssl.key/server.key
    # cp server.crt /etc/httpd/ssl.crt/server.crt
    # chmod 400 /etc/httpd/ssl.key/server.key
    # chmod 400 /etc/httpd/ssl.crt/server.crt

    Restart Apache


    # /etc/init.d/apache restart

    # apache2ctl gracefu
  • Downloading resources on Android devices returns unknown file in Google Chrome, or internal browser but not in Firefox for Android!

    Short version

    • Do not rely on self signed certificate for android when downloading resources: android download manager wont work (below Android 4.1.4 SSL was even not supported in download manager)
    • Android do not support all kind of SSL Cipher, check the compatibility table below

    Long Story

    On some Android devices clicking the download link return back an error and show an 'Unknown file'. The file of an initial size of 790kb get partially and randomly downloaded: sometimes you get 140kb, sometimes 224kb or more.

    There is a workaround: if one lets the cursor on the link and clicks 'Save' then the saved document is correct and can be opened.

    This issue appear on some Android phone, not on Android tablet (???) and never on iOS (sic)

    Looking  at the logs, we have found that In Apache access log the resource-size returned is not the same as in Tomcat access log (only when client is Android). Using Desktop class browser (Google Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Safari) the sizes returned by Tomcat and Apache is the same!

    After  a lot of try and error we found out that Android is able to download properly the resource when connecting directly to tomcat (e.g. without SSL), however in this case there is a VERY strange behaviour:

    So, when we try to download the resource via HTTP, android needs to connect twice! The first connection seems to abort and only the second connection (Android download manager) is able to fetch everything. 

    After that, we enabled the debug logging in Apache and had look at the output.

    [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [info] Initial (No.1) HTTPS request received for child 0 (server skye3.innoveo.com:443)
    [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] mod_proxy_http.c(56): proxy: HTTP: canonicalising URL //localhost:8443/xx.pdf
    [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] proxy_util.c(1525): [client] proxy: http: found worker http://localhost:8443/ for http://localhost:8443/xx.pdf
    [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] mod_proxy.c(1026): Running scheme http handler (attempt 0) [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] mod_proxy_http.c(1982): proxy: HTTP: serving URL http://localhost:8443/xx.pdf [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] proxy_util.c(2102): proxy: HTTP: has acquired connection for (localhost) [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] proxy_util.c(2158): proxy: connecting http://localhost:8443/xx.pdf to localhost:8443 [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] proxy_util.c(2285): proxy: connected /xxxxx.pdf to localhost:8443 [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] mod_proxy_http.c(1741): proxy: start body send [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [info] [client] (104)Connection reset by peer: core_output_filter: writing data to the network [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [info] [client] (103)Software caused connection abort: SSL output filter write failed. [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] mod_proxy_http.c(1851): proxy: end body send [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] proxy_util.c(2120): proxy: HTTP: has released connection for (localhost) [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [info] [client] Connection to child 3 established (server skye3.innoveo.com:443) ... ~removed useless debug output~ [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_kernel.c(1966): [client] SSL virtual host for servername skye3.innoveo.com found [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_kernel.c(1853): OpenSSL: Loop: SSLv3 read client hello A [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_kernel.c(1853): OpenSSL: Loop: SSLv3 write server hello A [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_kernel.c(1853): OpenSSL: Loop: SSLv3 write certificate A [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_kernel.c(1853): OpenSSL: Loop: SSLv3 write key exchange A [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_kernel.c(1853): OpenSSL: Loop: SSLv3 write server done A [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_kernel.c(1853): OpenSSL: Loop: SSLv3 flush data Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_io.c(1929): OpenSSL: read 5/5 bytes from BIO7f1a4c1230d0 [mem: 7f1a4c17a493] (BIO dump follows) ... ~removed useless debug output~ [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_kernel.c(1853): OpenSSL: Loop: SSLv3 read client key exchange A [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_io.c(1929): OpenSSL: read 5/5 bytes from BIO7f1a4c1230d0 [mem: 7f1a4c17a493] (BIO dump follows) ... ~removed useless debug output~ [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_kernel.c(1853): OpenSSL: Loop: SSLv3 read finished A [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_kernel.c(1853): OpenSSL: Loop: SSLv3 write session ticket A [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_kernel.c(1853): OpenSSL: Loop: SSLv3 write change cipher spec A [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_kernel.c(1853): OpenSSL: Loop: SSLv3 write finished A [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_kernel.c(1853): OpenSSL: Loop: SSLv3 flush data [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [debug] ssl_engine_kernel.c(1849): OpenSSL: Handshake: done [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [info] Connection: Client IP:, Protocol: TLSv1.2, Cipher: ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA (256/256 bits) [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [info] [client] (70014)End of file found: SSL input filter read failed. [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [info] [client] Connection closed to child 2 with standard shutdown (server skye3.innoveo.com:443) [Tue Jan 26 16:06:29 2016] [info] [client] Connection to child 0 established (server skye3.innoveo.com:443) ...

    So we see, the intial SSL connect works, we can see the request issued and the proxy request. Body is written and then "connection reset by peer"

    After careful search it is pretty sure that we are running into this problem: https://code.google.com/p/chromium/issues/detail?id=440951
    when you try to download stuff with chromium it works (even from unsecure sources), this is why the first connect is okay. however chromium interrupts the download to hand it over to android download manager (this is why actually displaying pictures works, despite the fact that they are delivered though the same pipeline, e.g. skye code, tomcat version, apache and ssl). this is also why we see two downloads per click in the log files. Problem is however that android download manager does NOT NEVER EVER download stuff from unsecure sources (e.g. selfsigned certs) and thus the final download fails. this is also true for the default andoid browser, because they also use the android download manager.

    Solution: the only solution was be to upgrade to valid SSL  certificates (Verizon, Verisign or any other) instead of self signed. This increase the number of Android device working but unfortunately  some Android devices were still NOT able to download resources with a valid SSL cert...

    By using the Android SDK debug console (adb.exe logcat > file.txt) of android, we saw the following:

    	Line 7487: D/DownloadManager( 3054): [1] Starting
    	Line 7489: W/DownloadManager( 3054): [1] Stop requested with status HTTP_DATA_ERROR: Handshake failed
    	Line 7491: D/DownloadManager( 3054): [1] Finished with status WAITING_TO_RETRY

    This show again that the initial connect to our server happen correctly but return partial content but is then forwarded to the download manager that try to build another connection that is still fail

    Solution: change Apache cipher suite according to the table below.

    Android compatibility table


    Depending on which version of android you would like to support you'll  have to find a cipher suite that is supported by iOS, Android while not sacrificing too much security. 

    Android Version Released API Level Name Build Version Code
    Android 6.0 August 2015 23 Marshmallow Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.Marshmallow
    Android 5.1 March 2015 22 Lollipop Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.LollipopMr1
    Android 5.0 November 2014 21 Lollipop Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.Lollipop
    Android 4.4W June 2014 20 Kitkat Watch Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.KitKatWatch
    Android 4.4 October 2013 19 Kitkat Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.KitKat
    Android 4.3 July 2013 18 Jelly Bean Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.JellyBeanMr2
    Android 4.2-4.2.2 November 2012 17 Jelly Bean Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.JellyBeanMr1
    Android 4.1-4.1.1 June 2012 16 Jelly Bean Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.JellyBean
    Android 4.0.3-4.0.4 December 2011 15 Ice Cream Sandwich Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.IceCreamSandwichMr1
    Android 4.0-4.0.2 October 2011 14 Ice Cream Sandwich Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.IceCreamSandwich
    Android 3.2 June 2011 13 Honeycomb Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.HoneyCombMr2
    Android 3.1.x May 2011 12 Honeycomb Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.HoneyCombMr1
    Android 3.0.x February 2011 11 Honeycomb Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.HoneyComb
    Android 2.3.3-2.3.4 February 2011 10 Gingerbread Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.GingerBreadMr1
    Android 2.3-2.3.2 November 2010 9 Gingerbread Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.GingerBread
    Android 2.2.x June 2010 8 Froyo Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.Froyo
    Android 2.1.x January 2010 7 Eclair Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.EclairMr1
    Android 2.0.1 December 2009 6 Eclair Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.Eclair01
    Android 2.0 November 2009 5 Eclair Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.Eclair
    Android 1.6 September 2009 4 Donut Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.Donut
    Android 1.5 May 2009 3 Cupcake Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.Cupcake
    Android 1.1 February 2009 2 Base Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.Base11
    Android 1.0 October 2008 1 Base Android.OS.BuildVersionCodes.Base

    It is always a good idea to validate your SSL settings by using one the these online services (In no particular order). Some even report if you are vulnerable to some common SSL attacks ()

  • NASA wants to put a picture of you on one of two remaining space shuttle missions and launch it into orbit. To launch your face into space and become a part of history, just follow these steps:
    First...Select the Participate button at the bottom of this page and upload your image/name, which will be flown aboard the space shuttle. Don't have a picture to upload? No problem, just skip the image upload and we will fly your name only on your selected mission!
    Next...Print and save the confirmation page with your flight information.
    Later...Return to this site after launch to print your Flight Certificate - a commemorative certificate signed by the Mission Commander. You can also check on mission status, view mission photographs, link to various NASA educational resources and follow the commander and crew on Twitter or Facebook.

    35th shuttle mission

    The 133rd space shuttle flight launched on February 24, 2011. On this 35th shuttle mission to the International Space Station, Discovery will deliver the Express Logistics Carrier 4 and critical spare components to the Station. The pressurized logistics module will be a permanent fixture at the Station for supply storage.
    Thanks to 194,181 participants who sent your names and images with us on STS-133. View crew thank you message here.


    This certifies that the face of Cedric Walter has flown in space aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-133 from February 24 - March 9, 2011. The face was flown on Discovery's mission to the International Space Station at an altitude of 220 miles above the Earth. It flew at a speed of more than 17,400 miles per hour as it orbited our planet. On behalf of my crew and all of NASA, we thank you for sharing the excitement of our mission and welcome your interest in space exploration. We were glad to have you aboard.

    See my certificate at http://faceinspace.waltercedric.com/

    Related stuff

  • Thanks to the support of the always amazing Mozilla community, we got more than
    8 million Firefox 3 downloads in 24 hours. That’s more Firefox downloads than we’ve ever
    had in a single day -- an impressive feat indeed!


    by going there: http://www.spreadfirefox.com/en-US/worldrecord/certificate_form

    And see where it has been downloaded the most here http://www.spreadfirefox.com/en-US/worldrecord

    It is always time to give Firefox a try by downloading it ;-)